Changing incentives will further increase savings

Vehicle manufacturers will compete on cost per mile (rather than upfront cost of purchase or other attributes like performance, comfort, appearance etc.). Currently, manufacturers make money from selling vehicles and maintaining them, creating incentives towards planned obsolescence. In the future, they will compete to maximise vehicle lifetimes and minimise operating costs. Further gains are possible as vehicles are re-designed to strip out unnecessary accessories and platforms are created that can be easily maintained with all parts capable of simple replacement when required. Labour in maintenance will be minimised through automation.